Gendered language in Shakespeare

By Gordon Rugg

To what extent does the language of Shakespeare’s plays indicate a male-dominated world? One way to see is by looking at the distribution of gendered words within the texts.

The figure below shows the location of the words he, him, his, she and her in Midsummer Night’s Dream. Each of the tiny rectangles represents a word in the text; the coloured words represent the keywords, and the blank rectangles represent the other words. This representation ignores linebreaks in the original text. The images are roughly equivalent to a miniaturised image of the text laid out as a scroll, with the keywords marked with coloured highlighter.

In each pair of images below, the nominative forms of the keywords are in red, and the other forms such as accusatives are in green, to show whether one gender appears more often in an active role.

(Apologies to any readers who are red/green colour blind; the Search Visualizer software itself takes account of colour blindness in its options, but shrinking the images down to fit into blog format loses the contrast.)

The column on the left shows the distribution of the words he/him/his in Midsummer Night’s Dream. The column on the right shows the distribution of the words she/her in the same play.

There are more male pronouns, but the difference is not huge; both male and female pronouns occur frequently throughout the play.

Here, for comparison, is the corresponding figure for Romeo and Juliet.

Again, there are more male pronouns, but the difference is more marked, and there’s one section of the play which contains no female pronouns. This isn’t a simple artefact of the plot device of Juliet’s death. A comparison with another Shakespeare love story makes the point clearly.

The figure below shows the distribution of male and female pronouns in Antony and Cleopatra.

In Antony and Cleopatra, there are many more male pronouns than female, and there are several stretches of the play which contain no female pronouns. Antony and Cleopatra is about power politics, as well as a love story. The next two figures show results from two Shakespeare tragedies about power politics, both with strong female characters, but where love is not a central theme.

The following figure shows the results from Hamlet.

This play shows the same trend as Antony and Cleopatra, but taken further. Another play  goes further still.

The next figure shows results from Macbeth.

Although Lady Macbeth is one of the most famous female characters in drama, the play contains hardly any female pronouns, and most of those are clustered toward the end.

How does that compare with modern patterns of gendered language?

Here, as a closing comparison, is a screenshot of the first two records that came up when I searched the Scientific American blog site ( using the “single site” option, for the same gendered words. This time, he/him/his appear in red, and she/her appear in green.

In terms of gendered language, these are much more balanced than any of the Shakespeare texts.

They’re also an interesting comparison because they show two different ways of reaching the same end point. One has a clearly defined structure, with a stratum of she/her and then a stratum of he/him/his in a way that implies a deliberate attempt to achieve balance. The other has the two sets of terms intermingled throughout the text. Not all blogs achieve this level of balance, but these two articles show that it can happen, and show ways that it can be done.


Displaying where key terms occur within a text can give swift and powerful new insights into a text and into a body of texts.

This approach has the advantage of showing relative frequencies etc swiftly and easily. It also has the advantage of showing distributions of words within a text, making it easier for the researcher to examine how vocabulary reflects thematic structure.

We’re working on other analyses of texts, ranging from great literature to popular fiction and blogs. We’d be glad to hear from anyone working in this area who has suggestions, questions or experiences involving insights that this approach can offer.

(Note: This article is reblogged from the Search Visualizer blog site.)

Links, further information and technical notes

I’ve blogged about gender and categorisation in some earlier articles. Two were about an art exhibition based around visualisations of gender:

Another is about anthropological categorisation and gender:


The images above were produced using the Search Visualizer. This software is available for free at:

The “classic texts” section of the site contains the five Shakespeare plays above, plus other texts, and articles about using the Search Visualizer.

There’s more information about the software on the Search Visualizer blog:

Technical note for inquisitive readers: The searches above all used the “whole word” option, as opposed to the “partial match” option, to avoid false positives from words such as “the” which contain “he”.


2 thoughts on “Gendered language in Shakespeare

  1. Pingback: Content analysis: An introduction | hyde and rugg

  2. Pingback: Content analysis, part 2 | hyde and rugg

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